The caveman or paleo diet is based on nuts, berries, fish and lean grass-fed meats. Following this diet leads to substantial decreases in total cholesterol.
Proponents of the diet claim that human genes evolved over thousands of years to optimize metabolism from consuming these natural foods. Suddenly, industrialization changed the human diet to include the consumption of grains and processed, calorie-dense, high fat foods. Food choices also increased significantly, which promoted overeating and overconsumption of unhealthy foods.
Experts from Eastern Michigan University discovered that middle-aged adults eating a paleo diet low in grains experienced substantial decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and increased HDL (the good cholesterol). These changes happened after they had first consumed a classic cholesterol-lowering diet.
Critics of the paleo diet emphasize that the diets of ancient humans varied greatly from one place to another, so that it’s unlikely that metabolically connected genes adapted uniformly.